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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| April-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 7, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pattern of chromosomal aberrations and expression profile of p53ser15 and BAX protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy subjects and cancer patients
Swapnaja Gulawani, Venkateswarlu Raavi, S Suresh, Venkatachalam Perumal
April-June 2016, 7(2):42-49
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.191706  
Introduction: Chemotherapy is an important treatment option which is used for all cancer types. The basic mechanism of action of chemotherapy is that the drugs cause damage to the cancer cells by breaking down DNA, interfere with replication, or enhance the cell killing. Emerging studies have shown that despite tremendous improvements on the therapeutic options, benefit derived from the therapy is not desirable. It is because, interindividual variations among the patient's response to therapy as well as complex signaling molecules and mechanism involved, determining the final outcome of the therapy. Therapeutic efficacy can be improved by predicting a patient response to that agent, adopting a suitable marker. Materials and Methods: This study involves analysis of the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus, expression profile of p53 ser15 and BAX in healthy subjects and cancer patients, to identify a novel marker to predict their response to chemotherapy agents. For this, peripheral blood sample (4 ml) from cancer patients (solid tumors) was obtained before and after chemotherapy (n = 20). The change in those marker in cancer patients were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (n = 20). Results: The present study results indicated substantial increase in all four biomarkers for postchemotherapy compared to that obtained before therapy; however, the increase was not significant (P > 0.05), whereas a significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in all markers from cancer patients compared to that of healthy volunteers relate the genetic instability to the disease status. Furthermore, on comparison, the levels of all those changes are increased in samples obtained posttherapy, despite the magnitude of BAX expression is considerably higher when compared to other markers. Conclusion: Therefore, the study results implied that BAX can be used as a better marker to predict the patient response to chemotherapy.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancers: In which direction are we heading?
Punita Lal, Mranalini Verma, KJ Maria Das, Shaleen Kumar
April-June 2016, 7(2):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.191702  
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the treatment modalities, which most of the time used in the treatment of most head and neck cancers with/without chemotherapy either as a definitive treatment or adjuvant/postoperated or for symptoms palliation, but it is always accompanied by late sequelae such as xerostomia and dysphagia. These two major sequelae have a significant effect on patient's quality of life even after cure of disease. However, with the advancement of modern techniques such as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) which effectively spares the parotid glands has a significant effect, proven in randomized trials, for xerostomia as well as dysphagia. IMRT to spare dysphagia and aspiration related structure ( DARSs) has also been studied extensively. To improve the results further, nowadays, we focus on use of functional imaging at the time of RT planning and/or use of image guidance for the adaptation during RT treatment as well as focus on to reduce neurocognition effects of treatment by sparing brain.
  1 4,195 442
BOOK REVIEW
Synergistic interaction and cell responses to environmental factors
Amit Kumar
April-June 2016, 7(2):60-61
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.191705  
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CASE REPORT
Radiation therapy of a Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as mass in the knee
Pinelopi-Theopisti Memtsa, Konstantia Loga, Ariadni Kyriakogiannaki
April-June 2016, 7(2):57-59
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.191710  
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) represents a group of malignancies of the lymphatic system which are characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of B- or T-lymphocytes. NHL may affect the musculoskeletal system in 5-25% of the patients. In this case, we present a case of a patient who underwent surgery, in which a soft tissue mass was removed from the popliteal cavity of the right knee. After a series of examinations, it was considered to be a follicular B-cell NHL of the knee which was successfully treated with radiation therapy.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia state, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations
Paschal Ikenna Enyinna, Francis C Uzochukwu
April-June 2016, 7(2):50-56
Context: The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. Aim: This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). Results: The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE is 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) × 10−3 , (3.529 ± 0.547) × 10−3 , and (3.210 ± 0.748) × 10−3 , and are above the world average limit of 0.29 × 10−3 . Conclusion: Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 × 10−4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users.
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