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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| October-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 1, 2017

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Evaluation of radioiodinated curcumin for its potential as a tumor-targeting radiopharmaceutical
Chandan Kumar, Suresh Subramanian, Grace Samuel
October-December 2016, 7(4):112-116
Introduction: Curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric has widely reported anticancer properties in several types of cancer. The differential accumulation and mechanism of its action in normal and cancer cells have proven its potential in targeting tumor. Therefore, it was of interest to label curcumin with a suitable radionuclide and explore its potential for use in nuclear medicine. Materials and Methods: Curcumin was labeled with 125I by iodogen method. The radiochemical purity was analyzed by paper electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Cell binding was carried out in murine lymphoma and melanoma cell lines. Bioevaluation and pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated curcumin was carried out in lymphoma-bearing mice for various time points (1, 3, 24, and 48 h). Results: The efficiency of labeling was >75% and the radiochemical purity postpurification was >95% The maximum uptake (~7% at 2 h, 37°C using 5 × 105 cells) was observed in EL4 cells. Significant tumor uptake in lymphoma-bearing mice was observed at 180 min (3.3 ± 0.76% ID/g). In addition, pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated curcumin is fast, with the majority of the preparation out of the bloodstream in 3 h. Conclusion: The results of these studies suggest that curcumin has the potential for targeting lymphomas, which may be used as diagnostic/therapeutic agent by labeling with other radionuclides.
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Bystander response triggered by doxorubicin-killed dead cells contributes to acquire drug resistance but increasing radiosensitivity In vitro
Abhay Puthli, Reeta Tiwari, Kaushala Prasad Mishra
October-December 2016, 7(4):103-111
Introduction: A bystander effect typically refers to the death, altered growth or damage of cells that have not directly received chemotherapy or irradiation. Chemotherapeutic drugs like doxorubicin cause a drastic increase in the number of dead cells more towards the periphery and low towards the centre of the tumor prompting us to test for the existence of a bystander effect in view of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods: HeLa cervical cancer cells were acutely exposed to doxorubicin to trigger cell death. Bystander HeLa cells in varying amounts were co cultured with fix amount of dead cells. The surviving mutant clones were isolated by serial culturing and checked for morphology, growth pattern and resistance to doxorubicin or radiation. Results: Co-culture results showed, growth arrest, SA-γ-galactosidase activity, an enlarged cell size, collectively indicating a premature senescent state. Up regulation of p53 and γH2AX indicated a DNA damage response pathway. Co-culturing of a fixed number of dead cells with increasing number of bystander cells showed highest number of clones formed in least number of bystander cells. The individual clones obtained were morphologically altered, reduced proliferation and resistant to doxorubicin. Conversely, clones were sensitive to γ radiation compared to control HeLa cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that dead cells conferred significant resistance towards drug but not radiation in cloned bystander tumor cells. This point to possible mechanism of drug resistance in vitro, which might explain the success of radiation therapy and cause of frequent tumor recurrence observed in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
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Phytocomponents of argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) confer radioprotection
Amrita Singh, Renu Dayal, Rudra P Ojha, Kaushala P Mishra
October-December 2016, 7(4):99-102
Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) is a reputed indigenous medicinal plant which possesses various pharmacological properties. The alcoholic root extracts of A. speciosa contains several bioactive compounds including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), coumarins (scopoletin), alkaloid (ergoline), saponins, tannins that have potent free radical scavenging activity and role in cell function modulation in disease conditions. The present review is an attempt to provide an insight of anticancer properties of A. speciosa. It is suggested that extract may have the potential to act as an effective radioprotector to normal cells in cancer radiotherapy.
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Cancer metastasis: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer radiotherapy
Amit Kumar
October-December 2016, 7(4):97-98
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An audit of over two decades of treating pituitary adenomas at a tertiary care facility
Rohini Khurana, Mranalini Verma, Prakash Kumar Swain, Vijaylakshmi Bhatia, Preeti Dabadghav, Sanjay Behari, Deepu Banerji, Shaleen Kumar
October-December 2016, 7(4):117-121
Aims: This retrospective audit of long-term outcomes and treatment sequelae with conventional radiotherapy (RT) is presented with an objective to provide baseline data with which outcomes of high precision techniques (fractionated radiosurgery and intensity-modulated RT [IMRT]) may be compared. Materials and Methods: Between the years 1990 and 2012, a total of 182 patients of pituitary adenoma were registered in the Department of Radiotherapy. Of these, 156 received RT. Immobilization consisted of a plaster of Paris cast (1990–1995), acrylic cast (1996–2000), a three-point head fixation thermoplastic cast (2001–2006), and now we are using “U”-IMRT thermoplastic cast since 2007 onward. A 2-field technique was used in 7% patients, whereas in the remaining 93% patients, 3-field technique was used. Forty-seven percent of patients were treated on a telecobalt unit and the remaining 53% patients on 6 MV linear accelerator. Rectangular fields, no field shaping, and appropriate wedges were used with mean field sizes (standard deviation [SD] and range) being 41.4 cm2 (16, 25–100). Mean dose (SD, range) was 47.5 Gy (SD 3.2; range 45–55) given in 1.8–2.0 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week. Results: Sixty percent of patients were (93/156) males. Median age was 37 years (mean - 37, SD - 13.2, range 12–66); 40.4% (63/156) had functional tumors. Presenting features were mainly headache 125 (80%), field defects 91 (58.3%), menstrual disturbances 33 (53% of women), and acromegalic features 38 (24.4%). Suprasellar extension, 129 (82.7%), was most common. All patients underwent resection; out of them, 28.2% patients had multiple surgeries. At a median (range) follow-up of 33 months (2–212) of all patients, the estimated freedom from progression was 96% at 2 years and 92% at 5 and 10 years with no patient failing beyond 18 months. Conclusions: Conventional external RT as described in postoperative cases of pituitary adenoma is safe and effective for tumor control with a median time to normalization of hormonal hypersecretion being about 30 months.
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